Diacritics in Arabic

The following verse of poetry for the poet Abu Al Tayeb AlMutanabbi أبو الطيب المتنبي explains how the same word with different diacritics means completely different meanings and varies the word from being a noun or a verb or an article.

أَلَمٌ أَلَمَّ أَلَمْ أُلِمَّ بِدَائِهِ *** إِنْ أَنَّ آنٌّ آنَ آنُ أَوَانِهِ

وجع آحاط بي لم أعلم بمرض *** إذا توجع المريض حان وقت شفائه

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